Drummer Cozy Powell found fame with Rainbow, Whitesnake, Jeff Beck, amongst many others, and has a CV that runs like a Who’s Who of hard rock. A renowned heavy hitter who could play blues, rock, prog or metal, and even classical, as he would frequently incorporate the 1812 Overture or 633 Squadron (or both) into his drum solos.
He was also a drummer I got to know well, becoming friends after I interviewed him for Record Collector magazine, and briefly ran his fanclub, speaking to him about his work with Brian May and Yngwie Malmsteen the day before he died. Having him come into a bar just off Oxford Street, London, tired from all the same old questions, and having him sit up buzzing after the first question, replying “Fuck Me, you would have to start with the most difficult thing I’ve ever done” one of my happiest moments.
Born Colin Flooks, Cozy took his first name from drummer Cozy Cole, and played drums from an early age. An early band, The Corals, surely broke a record or two with a 12 hour gig at the town hall in Cirencester circa 1964 (where a Blue Plaque now lays, opened by Brian May, Tony Iommi, Neil Murray, Suzi Quatro and more in the mod 2010s – now THAT was a memorable day).
Cozy made his debut with The Sorcerers in 1967, and also recorded singles with Youngblood, The Ace Kefford Stand and Big Bertha (all with various Ball brothers, notably bassist Denny Ball, with whom Cozy lived for a while). The Ace Kefford in question was formerly of The Move, and there’s a fine live show by Big Bertha recorded in 1970 released on CD many years later.
1970 then saw Cozy play with Tony Joe White at the latter’s Isle Of White performance, the full recording available on White’s Swamp Music: The Complete Monument Recordings, a set that is now beyond most wallets on Ebay. Then Cozy got the opportunity to record with Jeff Beck, on his albums Rough’n’Ready and The Jeff Beck Group. As Cozy told me back in 1996: “I was recommended to Peter Grant, Jeff’s manager at the time. A guy called Phil Myatt who managed the ‘Mothers Club’ in Birmingham at the time, said there’s a couple of good drummers in Birmingham. One guy’s called John Bonham, one’s Cozy Powell. As they say, the rest is history. John had then just got the gig with The New Yardbirds, with Jimmy & Robert, who were good friends of mine in those days. I was recommended to Peter Grant, they wrote to me saying they were holding auditions for Jeff Beck. I hired a car, drove my kit down. There were about 30 other guys doing the audition and I got the job.”
Two fantastic albums. And during this time Cozy and Jeff went to Detroit to record an album of Motown covers. As Cozy told me: “It never got the test pressing stage. We went to Motown in Detroit with the idea of Jeff recording an album of all the Motown hits, basically as an instrumental album. He wanted to use a lot of the Motown session players. At that time I’d just joined him, 1969 I think, and his original idea was to find a drummer first. Found me, went down to the audition, got the job, next thing I know we’re going to Motown to do this album. We did ‘Reach out I’ll Be There’, ‘Losing You’, things like that. In the end we did about 7 or 8 tracks of which the backing tracks were done”. Jeff Beck’s involvement with the recording of Stevie Wonder’s Superstition has been well documented, and it’s a track The Jeff Beck Group with Cozy played live regularly.
Cozy’s next band was Bedlam (originally called Beast), who recorded one eponymous album in 1973 and is one of Cozy’s finest. Hard blues rock, the band featured bassist Denny Ball and his brother guitarist Dave (both of whom Cozy worked with in the 60s), as well as vocalist Frank Aiello. The band were never happy with Felix Papalardi’s production but it’s an essential album all the same.
By now Cozy’s session work was well underway, recording with Murray Head, Julie Felix, Ed Welch, Tony Ashton/Jon Lord (First Of The Big Bands). Chick Churchill (ex Ten Years After, features Bernie Marsden) and Donovan (Denny Ball, Suzi Quatro).
Bedlam toured with Black Sabbath and were on the verge of bigger and better things, the session work took over, notably with RAK and Cozy’s solo work under the guidance of Micky Most, and Bedlam dissolved as two solo singles Dance With The Devil and The Man In Black took off. This was followed by the hit single Na Na Na, as Cozy Powell’s Hammer, featuring guitarist Bernie Marsden, bassist Clive Chaman (ex Jeff Beck Group, replaced at some later gigs by Neil Murray), pianist Don Airey and singer Frank Aiello (Bedlam).
Many years later Bedlam reformed for a gig at the Camden Underworld, with drummer Russell Gilbrook (currently in Uriah Heep). I was lucky enough to get my Bedlam LP signed by Frank, Denny and Dave, and emotional moment as they all signed next to Cozy’s signature.
1975 saw Cozy take a break from the music industry, and considered taking up motor racing, after the collapse of the Strange Brew project (featuring Clem Clempson and Greg Riddley) before it got off the ground, but he returned a year later. Aside two singles with Hot Chocolate and the Peter And The Wolf album (featuring Gary Moore), Cozy famously joined Ritchie Blackmore’s Rainbow.
About the audition, in his own words: “Yes, I was number 80, or 77 or something like that. I’ve heard some funny stories about Ritchie being difficult with drummers. Apparently this one guy came along, set the drum kit up, looked the part, got his suitcase out and changed next to the kit with this all black kind of outfit and black gloves. Eventually gets up and says he’s ready and Ritchie says ‘Get rid of him’. This poor guy doesn’t even play a note. I remember that audition. I got a phonecall on the Wednesday night from my tour manager and got the plane to L.A. in the morning. Off the plane, check into the hotel and straight down to the audition, no time no nothing and a kit I’ve never even seen before. There were about 100 people in this sound stage looking at me like a golden boy they’ve just flown over from England at great expense. The first thing he said to me was ‘Can you play a shuffle?’ How about this and BANG! started playing this shuffle and 20 minutes later ‘You’ve got the job’”.-
The subsequent album, Rainbow Rising, was a complete game changer. Alongside Cozy and Blackmore, the album featured bassist Jimmy Bain, pianist Tony Carey and renowned vocal-ist Ronnie James Dio. This is the album that, when I first heard it in the early 80s, introduced me to Cozy Powell, and a passion was born.
About the album: “I think it’s probably one of the best albums I’ve done, in retrospect. There were 2 or 3 tracks on there that were really outstanding which summed up the music at the time, just when heavy rock was really coming into its own. It featured the drums fairly heavily. I had to work out all these little things that have been copied to death since and I’m very proud of it. We did it every quickly, in Munich. Most of those tracks were done in 2 or 3 takes. ‘A Light In The Black’ was done in one take, you could not simply play that track again. It was done in the days before you started editing. We worked out how to do it and went into rehearsals and I said to Ritchie I’m going for this, so don’t worry about the guitar we can put that on afterwards but let’s get the track right”.
A line-up change or two, Long Live Rock’n’Roll followed, then the far more commercial Down To Earth, featuring Roger Glover, Don Airey and Graham Bonnet. All the Rainbow albums come recommended, for different reasons, but the various Live In Germany sets (1976 and 1977) even more so. Cozy’s last performance with Rainbow was Donington 1980. Keyboard player Don Airey once told me “I remember the soundcheck, where Cozy blew the PA up with his fireworks. I don’t know how he didn’t kill himself actually. It was very dangerous, what a gig that was”.
Cozy recorded his first solo album, Over The Top in 1979, featuring Jack Bruce, Don Airey and Gary Moore, amongst others. Don Airey has a story or two: “We did the Rainbow album Down To Earth and I drove straight back to England from France, with Cozy, and we did Over The Top, and that was a big release. Recording the Rainbow album had been quite fraught. We didn’t have a singer at the time and we didn’t have a bass player either, it was just me, Ritchie and Cozy made the album, it was quite difficult. I’d done a lot of guide bass on the Moog, just to help everything along, and I said “Roger why don’t you come” and “Oh no I’m just the producer” and I think it was Graham who put his foot down, “Come on Rog what’s up with you, you’re the best” he said. So it’s when Roger put the bass on that it all came together. There was none of that with Cozy, we just a great time. And Jack Bruce, who had been having a patchy time with his career, as I recall, it was the same thing we just played and he loved it, it was marvellous”.
That solo album saw Cozy put the 1812 Overture on vinyl, having used it in his live set for many years. It was all done with Don Airey’s help: “Yeah. It was back in Hammer, he said “What can I use as a drum solo?” so I bought the 1812 in and that’s where he got the idea from, and he had this idea to do it with an orchestra. He said “Right we’re going to do it with an orchestra, how much is that going to cost?”, and it’s four grand just to get them to sit down, and then it’s another three grand just for one session. “How much have you got?” and he says “600 quid” (laughs), So I said I’d do it for dinner and a couple of drinks, how about that? Come back in 24 hours, just did that bit on my own, which was great fun”.
1979 also saw Cozy play the Old Grey Whistle Test as part of Gary Moore And Friends (Brian Robertson, Phil Lynott, Don Airey), to promote Moore’s Back On The Streets album. Also available on Youtube are two performances in the House Band for Noel Edmond’s Swapshop, also featuring Brian Robertson, Chris Spedding, Alan Price and John Miles.
Cozy also recorded on solo albums by Bernie Marsden, Jon Lord and Graham Bonnet (Line-Up, hit single Night Games). The Tilt and Octopus solo albums soon followed, the latter featuring Gary Moore and several members of Whitesnake.
Cozy recorded the MSG album with Michael Schenker Group (he also appears on the live bonus tracks on the debut), the subsequent One Night At The Budokan live album an essential listen. “The ‘Live At The Budokan’ album was good. At the time I had a bit of food poisoning. We had literally just flown to Japan and some of us had eaten some airline food, so half the crew and band were sick. I was the one in the band who suffered the worst. The venue was 12,500 people, the mobile was there, and the guy was going ‘Ladies and Gentleman…’ and I’m still throwing up backstage. I walked on stage feeling like death, God knows how the album turned out so good. How did I do that?”
The early to mid 80s saw more sessions too, including Robert Plant, Roger Daltrey. Then in 1982 Cozy was drafted into a revamped Whitesnake, to tour the Saints’n’Sinners album, during the recording of the band had nearly fallen apart. The 1983 Donington performance is fantastic and needs releasing properly. As Cozy put it: “That was the Saints’N’Sinners tour, with Micky Moody, Colin Hodgkinson, Jon Lord, Mel Galley. Then for Slide It In, Colin played bass but Neil Murray came in and did some extra tracks, replaced some of the bass. John Sykes came in too and did the tour. That was musically the most successful period for Whitesnake. 1987 was better financially, and people say ‘Still Of The Night’, which I like, but was a total Zeppelin rip-off. Slide It In was the last credible album. Later he got session players in and it just wasn’t Whitesnake anymore. John Sykes got booted, as we all did”.
Throughout the 80s Cozy made several more session appearances (James Darby, Sanne Salomonsen, Minute By Minute, for example) but the Phenomena and Forcefield albums stand out, and feature an array of well known musicians. And don’t forget the Young & Moody band single Don’t Do That, featuring Micky Moody (Whitesnake), Bob Young (Status Quo), vocalist Ed Hamilton (who had written Night Games), Lemmy (Motorhead) and The Nolan Sisters.
An obscurity of note – 1984 saw the release of the single I Got You Babe by Plum & Youth, which saw Cozy reunite with Denny Ball. Also featured are Don Airey and Bernie Marsden. The single was withdrawn and can be hard to find.
One of Cozy’s finest moments was Emerson Lake & Powell; “It was a great tour, and possibly the most challenging for me musically that I’ve ever done. I really enjoyed the tour, and being in that band, but due to Greg and Keith it was never going to work. They’ve reformed since then, but how can you work with people you can’t stand? Well, of course you can, they got back together because they were offered such a lot of money. They were all in financial hardship they had to do it. Keith’s a great musician, inspired me a bit and with Greg, he’s his own worst enemy in some respects, but a great musician and a fine singer”. Sadly the contracted second album never appeared.
Cinderella were next up, on a session basis, recording Long Cold Winter: “Oh yes! I got this call, out of the blue from the guy who ran the record company in the states, used to be in Gentle Giant, said they were having a lot of problems, got this producer, Andy Johns. There’s another nightmare, I do take on some things, anyway he’s been through 18 drummers. ‘We know you can do it, can you come over and do the album?’ The band was Cinderella. I didn’t know much about them, so I listened to some tracks and said OK. I get over to Philadelphia and we start trying to do these tracks, in the first couple of days it goes great. Andy’s ordering in beer by the crate and other substances and started telling me how to play which notes. I thought ‘Hang on, I’m the drummer’. I ended up doing virtually the whole album. It was like pulling teeth, I would not go through it again for anybody”.
Another classic 80s session was with Warlock, recording a track on their Triumph And Agony album. I met Doro Pesch at a show at London’s Camden Underworld and she told me: “The drummer we had was OK, but I wanted someone really powerful, REALLY powerful, I said for a track I wanted to do it really aggressive. I said to my manager I had a drummer who was good but wanted someone really powerful and he said “What about Cozy Powell?” so he called him up, because he was also managing Emerson Lake and Powell. Cozy said he would love to come so the next day he came from England to New York He did a couple more tracks. It was great. But it was when you couldn’t put guests’ names on the sleeve so we put him in the Thanks section. And my drummer who was in the band was like “Oh Man it’s great”, Cozy was the best”.
1989 saw the release of Gary Moore’s After The War, featuring Cozy. A wonderful rock album it was Gary’s last straight rock album before taking the blues angle. Always loved that set, but sadly disagreements during rehearsals saw Cozy dropping out of the tour. Around the same time, Cozy also played on Don Airey’s K2 solo album.
Another highlight was Black Sabbath, Cozy recorded the Headless Cross and Tyr albums, featuring Tony Martin and on the latter, Neil Murray. I saw them on the Tyr tour and Brian May guested, at the Hammersmith show – that was a stand out. Some of Cozy’s and Sabbath’s best work. And then there was the Comic Relief single The Stonk (Hale & Pace), featuring Brian May, Tony Iommi and Cozy. A lot of fun to say the least.
Cozy’s departure from Sabbath was a little premature, as Dio had rejoined the band and Cozy always felt Dio had issue with him after he didn’t follow Dio out of Rainbow. When Cozy was sidelined due to a horse riding accident, Dio insisted on continuing and not waiting.
Cozy then recorded the excellent The Drums Are Back solo album (featuring Steve Lukather, Brian May, John Deacon and a host of more and more) before joining Brian May’s solo band, recording and touring the Back To The Light album. Further sessions included with Judas Priest’s Glenn Tipton, which resulted in one album of more contemporary metal, and a later retrospective release of more trad metal, under the moniker of Tipton, Entwistle & Powell.
1995 and Black Sabbath (again), the Tyr line-up reuniting for the ill fated Forbidden album.
Cozy soon left Sabbath, telling me that he “couldn’t promote an album he didn’t believe in”, and I got the impression that a badly planned US tour was also a factor, and leaving the industry for a second time was a consideration.
It was soon after this I met Cozy for the first time, interviewing him for a Record Collector Magazine feature. He was clearly tired, largely due to a day of interviews and being asked the same things over and over. Being a fan, collector and wanting to take a more serious angle, I opened the interview with questions about The Sorcerers and the Motown album, and he made a point of sitting up, perking up, and taking me seriously, and we became friends. We later met at a Peter Green Splinter Group gig in Tunbridge Wells. I got there, saw this tiny drum set and thought “Shit, Cozy’s not playing”, but out he came. The kit lasted about 6 songs, and had to be held up by the drum tech sitting on the stage in front of it for the rest of the show. A fantastic guitarist though Peter Green was, he clearly wasn’t all there and Cozy was obviously frustrated, wanting to move things a long with a little more oomph. Hence the drum kit failure.
Cozy later invited me to his cottage not too far from Swindon, picking me up from the station in his SAAB 9000 (the car he would later crash and die in). I provided info for a discography and biography, to help give some professional presence, and helped set him up with a website. We even discussed a fanclub and newsletter.
Cozy Powell later recorded with Brian May and Yngwie Malmsteen, and at one point was unsure which tour to take. The Yngwie came up first, and Cozy travelled to New York for the rehearsals. This didn’t work out as he was recovering from a motorcycle accident and he was unable to play how he wanted – Cozy was the first to admit he was 100mph or nothing. He flew home, and had started rehabilitation and physiotherapy when he called me to update. Whilst upset at having to pull out of that tour, he was also positive because it had made a decision for him, plan was to get in the gym, get fit, go out on the road with Brian (a friend, and the preferential choice), and even take me with him for some interviews, publicity etc. Next day everything ended when he flipped his car on the M4 (dark, raining, half a bottle of wine and gear box failure). Bugger. I still have the 1997 Christmas Card that Cozy had sent me (4 months earlier), wishing the best for a productive 1998; it still hurts.
His last recording, an album with Colin Blunstone, was issued soon after.
Cozy’s legacy has continued strongly, and he still has a very solid fanbase. I have continued to collect Cozy’s work – seemingly a never ending job. To date I have 24 copies of Dance With The Devil, from around the world, including UK to Belgium export issue on blue vinyl, a 10” US acetate test pressing and a South African copy that lists Dance With The Drums. Many will remember him in the mid 80s on Record Breakers, playing 400 different drums in under a minute.
Working with Cozy as I did led to friendships with Denny Ball, Neil Murray and Don Airey. Many years later, when I got to interview Don, the PR introduced me to him and he said “Oh it’s you” with a big smile on his face. The PR gave us 25 minutes; 45 minutes later he’s still trying to pull us apart.
Over The Top (ft Gary Moore, Bernie Marsden, Don Airey, Jack Bruce, Max Middleton, Clem Clempson)
Tilt (ft Frank Aiello, Jack Bruce, Jeff Beck, Gary Moore, Chris Glen, Bernie Marsden, Don Airey, Elmer Gantry)
Octopus (ft Colin Hodgkinson, Jon Lord, Gary Moore, Don Airey, Mel Galley)
The Drums Are Back (ft Billy Sheehan, John Deacon, Neil Murray, Don Airey, Brian May, Steve Lukather, Jon Lord, Ray Fenwick, John Sinclair)
Especially For You (ft Neil Murray)
Rainbow – Rainbow Rising
Jeff Beck Group – Jeff Beck Group
Bedlam – Bedlam
Emerson Lake & Powell – Emerson Lake & Powell
Cozy Powell – Over The Top
Graham Bonnet – Line Up
Michael Schenker Group – One Night At The Budokan
Whitesnake – Slide It In
Gary Moore – After The War
Black Sabbath – Headless Cross
Brian May – Another World
Cozy Powell – The Drums Are Back
Cinderella – Long Cold Winder
Robert Plant – Pictures At Eleven
1967 The SORCERERS Love Is A Beautiful Thing
1968 YOUNG BLOOD Green Light
1968 YOUNG BLOOD Just How Loud
1969 Ace KEFFORD STAND For Your Love
1969 BIG BERTHA The World’s An Apple
1969 BIG BERTHA Munich City
1973 HOT CHOCOLATE Brother Louie
1973 HOT CHOCOLATE Rumours
1973 Cozy POWELL Dance With The Devil
1974 Cozy POWELL The Man In Black
1974 Cozy POWELL’s HAMMER Na Na Na
1981 YOUNG & MOODY BAND Don’t Do That
1984 PLUM And YOUTH I Got You Babe
1991 COMIC RELIEF / HALE & PACE The Stonk
1971 Ed WELCH CLOWNS
1971 The Jeff BECK GROUP ROUGH AND READY
1972 Harvey ANDREWS WRITER OF SONGS
1972 Julie FELIX CLOTHO’S WEB
1972 The Jeff BECK GROUP JEFF BECK GROUP
1973 BEDLAM BEDLAM
1973 Chick CHURCHILL YOU AND ME
1973 DONOVAN COSMIC WHEELS
1973 Murray HEAD NIGEL LIVED
1974 Bob SARGEANT The FIRST STARRING ROLE
1974 Tony ASHTON & Jon LORD FIRST OF THE BIG BANDS
1975 Peter SARSTEDT EVERY WORD YOU SAY
1976 RAINBOW RISING
1976 VA PETER AND THE WOLF
1977 RAINBOW ON STAGE
1978 RAINBOW LONG LIVE ROCK’N’ROLL
1979 Bernie MARSDEN AND ABOUT TIME TOO
1979 Cozy POWELL OVER THE TOP
1979 RAINBOW DOWN TO EARTH
1980 V/A MONSTERS OF ROCK
1981 Bernie MARSDEN LOOK AT ME NOW
1981 Cozy POWELL TILT
1981 Graham BONNET LINE UP
1981 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP MSG
1982 Cozy POWELL OCTOPUS
1982 Jon LORD BEFORE I FORGET
1982 Robert PLANT PICTURES AT ELEVEN
1982 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP ONE NIGHT AT THE BUDOKAN
1984 WHITESNAKE SLIDE IT IN
1985 PHENOMENA PHENOMENA
1985 Roger DALTREY UNDER A RAGING MOON
1986 EMERSON LAKE & POWELL EMERSON LAKE & POWELL
1986 RAINBOW FINYL VINYL (archive compilation, also Finyl Cut DVD)
1987 BOYS DON’T CRY WHO THE AM DAM DO YOU THINK WE AM
1987 FORCEFIELD FORCEFIELD
1987 Pete YORK SUPER DRUMMING VOL 1
1987 Sanne ALOMONSEN NO ANGEL
1987 WARLOCK TRIUMPH & AGONY
1988 CINDERELLA LONG COLD WINTER
1988 Don AIREY K2
1988 FORCEFIELD FORCEFIELD II: The Talisman
1988 Gary MOORE AFTER THE WAR
1988 James DARBY SOUTHERN REGION BREAKDOWN
1989 BLACK SABBATH HEADLESS CROSS
1989 FORCEFIELD FORCEFIELD III: To Oz And Back
1989 MINUTE BY MINUTE TIMEWATCH
1990 BLACK SABBATH TYR
1990 RAINBOW LIVE IN GERMANY 1976 (archive live)
1991 FORCEFIELD FORCEFIELD IV: Let The Wild Run Free
1991 Ritchie BLACKMORE ROCK PROFILE VOL 2
1992 Brain MAY BACK TO THE LIGHT
1992 Cozy POWELL THE DRUMS ARE BACK
1992 FORCEFIELD INSTRUMENTALS (compilation)
1994 Brian MAY LIVE AT THE BRIXTON ACADEMY
1995 BLACK SABBATH FORBIDDEN
1995 V/A IN FROM THE STORM – THE MUSIC OF JIMI HENDRIX
1997 Glenn TIPTON BAPTIZM OF FIRE
1997 PETER GREEN SPLINTER GROUP PETER GREEN SPLINTER GROUP
1997 S.A.S. BAND SAS BAND
1997 Yngwie MALMSTEEN FACING THE ANIMAL
1998 Brian MAY ANOTHER WORLD
1998 Colin BLUNSTONE THE LIGHT INSIDE
2001 ARROWS A’s B’s & RARITIES (archive compilation, Cozy on a few tracks, 1973 RAK sessions)
2002 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP REACTIVATE LIVE (4CD) (archive, from Cozy’s tape collection)
2003 Ace KEFFORD ACE THE FACE (archive compilation)
2003 BEDLAM LIVE IN LONDON 1973 (archive)
2003 EMERSON LAKE & POWELL LIVE IN CONCERT (archive live)
2003 EMERSON LAKE & POWELL THE SPROCKET SESSIONS (archive live)
2003 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP BACK TO ATTACK LIVE (4CD) (archive, from Cozy’s tape collection)
2004 BIG BERTHA LIVE IN HAMBURG 1970 (archive live)
2005 Tony MARTIN SCREAM (historic drum track)
2006 RAINBOW DEUTSCHLAND TOURNEE 1976 (6CD, also 3 * 2CD) (archive live)
2006 RAINBOW LIVE IN MUNICH 1977 (archive live)
2006 TIPTON ENTWISTLE & POWELL EDGE OF THE WORLD (retrospective release)
2008 Pete York SUPER DRUMMING VOL 3
2009 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP WALK THE STAGE (Official Bootleg) (4CD, clamshell) (archive live)
2014 WHITESNAKE LIVE IN 1984 (archive live)
2015 RAINBOW A LIGHT IN THE BLACK 1975-1984 (5CD/DVD) (archive live/compilation)
2015 RAINBOW DOWN TO EARTH TOUR 1979 (archive live)
2016 RAINBOW MONSTERS OF ROCK – LIVE @ DONINGTON 1980 (archive live)
2017 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP LIVE EAT ROCKPALAST (CD/DVD) (archive)
2018 Jeff BECK STILL ON THE RUN – THE JECK BECK STORY (DVD)
2021 The MICHAEL SCHENKER GROUP LIVE AT MANCHESTER APOLLO (2LP, red vinyl) (archive)
Joe Geesin | Now Spinning Magazine